Google Cloud Interview Questions

Google Cloud Interview Questions


What is Google Cloud Platform (GCP)?

Google Cloud Platform (GCP) is a suite of cloud computing services provided by Google. It includes a range of hosted services for compute, storage, and application development that run on Google hardware. GCP provides services like Google Compute Engine, Google Kubernetes Engine, Google Cloud Storage, and BigQuery, among others.

Explain the difference between Google Cloud Storage and Google Drive.

Google Cloud Storage and Google Drive are both cloud storage services offered by Google, but they serve different purposes and are designed for different use cases.

Feature Google Cloud Storage Google Drive
Target Audience Developers, enterprises, applications Individual users, small businesses
Primary Use Case Large-scale data storage, application data Personal file storage, sharing, collaboration
Scalability Highly scalable, supports petabytes of data Limited to individual user storage quotas
Data Management Advanced features: lifecycle management, versioning, data retention policies Basic file management: folders, sharing
Access Controls Fine-grained access control using IAM roles User-level sharing and permissions
API Access Robust REST APIs for programmatic access Basic API for personal file management
Storage Classes Multiple classes (Standard, Nearline, Coldline, Archive) for cost optimization Single storage class
Integration Integrates with other GCP services like Compute Engine, BigQuery Integrates with Google Workspace (Docs, Sheets, etc.)
Security Advanced security features, including encryption at rest and in transit, IAM Encryption, user-level access, two-factor authentication
Use Cases Big data analytics, backup and disaster recovery, media storage, application data storage Document storage, personal file sharing, team collaboration

What are Google Cloud Regions and Zones?

Regions in GCP are independent geographic areas that consist of multiple zones. Zones are deployment areas within regions. By deploying resources across multiple zones, users can protect their applications and data from unexpected failures or outages. Each zone is isolated, but the regions are connected through low-latency links.

Describe Google Compute Engine.

Google Compute Engine (GCE) is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) component of GCP that allows users to run virtual machines on Google's infrastructure. GCE provides scalable, high-performance virtual machines that can run Linux and Windows. It offers features such as persistent disks, global load balancing, and preemptible VMs.

What is Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)?

Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) is a managed, production-ready environment for deploying containerized applications using Kubernetes. It provides the infrastructure to automatically deploy, manage, and scale Kubernetes clusters. GKE handles cluster management, scaling, and upgrading, making it easier to manage containerized applications.

How does Google Cloud Storage ensure data security?

Google Cloud Storage provides multiple layers of security, including encryption at rest and in transit. Data is encrypted using AES-256, and encryption keys are managed by Google or the user. Additionally, Cloud Storage supports IAM roles and permissions, ensuring that only authorized users can access or modify data.

What is a VPC in Google Cloud?

A Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) in Google Cloud is a virtual network that provides isolated networking resources to manage Google Cloud resources securely. VPCs enable users to control IP ranges, create subnets, configure routes, and establish firewall rules. They can also connect to on-premises networks through VPN or Interconnect.

Explain the use of BigQuery.

Google BigQuery is a fully managed, serverless data warehouse service offered by Google Cloud that enables super-fast SQL queries using the processing power of Google's infrastructure. It is designed for large-scale data analysis and provides several key benefits:

  • Data Analysis and Reporting: Enables fast SQL queries on massive datasets for business intelligence.
  • Real-time Analytics: Provides real-time data analysis for immediate insights.
  • Handling Large Datasets: Designed for petabyte-scale data, ensuring fast performance.
  • Seamless Integration: Integrates with Google Cloud services and third-party tools.
  • Serverless and Scalable: Abstracts infrastructure management, automatically scales.
  • Cost Efficiency: Pay-as-you-go model based on data processed.
  • Machine Learning: Create and run ML models using SQL-like syntax.
  • Data Security and Governance: Robust security, encryption, and compliance features.
  • Interactive and Batch Queries: Supports real-time and scheduled queries.
  • Geospatial Analysis: Perform geospatial analysis for location-based insights.

What is Google Cloud IAM?

Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM) is a service that helps manage access control by defining who (identity) has what access (roles) to which resources. IAM policies specify permissions and can be assigned at the resource, project, or organization level, ensuring fine-grained control over access to cloud resources.

How do you set up auto-scaling in GCP?

Auto-scaling in GCP can be set up using instance groups, which allow virtual machines to scale based on demand. Managed instance groups can automatically add or remove instances based on metrics like CPU usage, load balancing, and scheduled events. Policies can be configured to define the scaling parameters and thresholds.

What is Cloud Spanner?

Cloud Spanner is a fully managed, scalable, and globally distributed relational database service. It combines the benefits of relational database structure with non-relational horizontal scalability. Cloud Spanner provides strong consistency, high availability, and transactional support across regions, making it suitable for mission-critical applications.

Explain the concept of serverless computing in GCP.

Serverless computing in Google Cloud Platform (GCP) is a cloud computing model where developers can build and run applications without managing the underlying infrastructure. In this model, the cloud provider dynamically manages the allocation of machine resources, scaling them up or down based on the application's needs.

  • Event-driven architecture: Serverless applications are typically event-driven, meaning they respond to triggers or events such as HTTP requests, database changes, or file uploads.
  • Auto-scaling: GCP automatically scales the resources allocated to the application based on the incoming workload. Developers do not need to provision or manage servers manually, allowing for cost-efficient use of resources.
  • Pay-per-use pricing: With serverless computing, developers only pay for the compute resources consumed by their applications, rather than paying for idle resources.
  • Managed services: GCP offers a variety of managed services that facilitate serverless computing, including Google Cloud Functions for event-driven functions, Cloud Run for containerized applications, and App Engine for fully managed platform-as-a-service (PaaS) applications.
  • Fast deployment: Developers can deploy serverless applications quickly, often with just a few clicks or commands. This enables rapid iteration and deployment of new features.

What is Google Cloud Pub/Sub?

Google Cloud Pub/Sub is a messaging service that allows for asynchronous communication between independent applications. It uses a publisher-subscriber model where messages are sent to topics and then delivered to subscribers. Pub/Sub is designed for real-time analytics, data integration, and event-driven architectures.

Describe Cloud Functions.

Cloud Functions is a serverless execution environment that lets you run event-driven code in response to cloud events. It automatically scales and manages the infrastructure needed to run your functions. Cloud Functions supports multiple programming languages and integrates with various GCP services, enabling quick deployment and execution of code.

How does Google Cloud CDN work?

Google Cloud CDN (Content Delivery Network) accelerates content delivery by caching content at strategically located edge points around the globe. This reduces latency by serving content closer to the user's location. Cloud CDN integrates with GCP services like Cloud Storage and Compute Engine, providing a seamless and efficient content delivery solution.

What is the purpose of Google Cloud Operations Suite (formerly Stackdriver)?

Google Cloud Operations Suite provides monitoring, logging, and diagnostics for applications running on GCP and other platforms. It includes tools like Monitoring, Logging, Trace, Debugger, and Error Reporting. These tools help developers gain insights into application performance, detect and resolve issues, and optimize resource usage.

Explain Google Cloud Interconnect.


Google Cloud Interconnect is a networking service provided by Google Cloud Platform (GCP) that enables dedicated and high-throughput connections between your on-premises network and Google Cloud. It allows organizations to establish private and secure connections to Google's global network infrastructure, providing reliable and low-latency connectivity.

  • Private Connectivity: Establishes dedicated, private connections between on-premises networks and Google Cloud Platform (GCP).
  • Dedicated and Partner Interconnect: Offers two options for connections - Dedicated Interconnect for direct physical links and Partner Interconnect through supported service providers.
  • High Performance: Provides high throughput, low-latency connections for data-intensive workloads.
  • Scalable: Allows organizations to scale their connectivity based on bandwidth needs.
  • Reduced Network Costs: Bypasses the public internet, potentially lowering network egress costs and improving performance.
  • Global Reach: Multiple Interconnect locations across the globe for optimal performance and redundancy.
  • Integration with GCP Services: Seamlessly integrates with other GCP services like Compute Engine, Kubernetes Engine, and Cloud Storage.
  • Use Cases: Supports hybrid cloud deployments, big data analytics, high-performance computing, and more.

What are preemptible VMs in Google Cloud?

Preemptible VMs are short-lived compute instances offered at a lower price than standard VMs. They are ideal for batch jobs and fault-tolerant workloads. Preemptible VMs can be terminated by Google Cloud at any time if resources are needed elsewhere, providing cost savings for interruptible workloads.

Describe the Google Cloud Marketplace.

Google Cloud Marketplace is an online store where you can discover, deploy, and manage third-party applications and services that run on Google Cloud. It offers a wide range of solutions, including web applications, APIs, databases, and developer tools, which can be easily deployed with pre-configured settings.

How do you use Google Cloud Deployment Manager?

Google Cloud Deployment Manager is an infrastructure management service that automates the deployment and management of GCP resources. You define resources using configuration files written in YAML or Python. Deployment Manager uses these files to create and manage resources, ensuring consistent and repeatable deployments.

What is the role of Service Accounts in GCP?

Service accounts are special accounts used by applications and virtual machines to interact with GCP APIs. They provide a secure way to access GCP resources without embedding user credentials. Each service account is associated with specific permissions, ensuring that applications can only access resources they are authorized to use.

Explain Google Cloud Dataflow.

Google Cloud Dataflow is a fully managed service for stream and batch data processing in the Google Cloud Platform. It allows developers to create data processing pipelines that can handle real-time streaming data and batch data with the same programming model. 

  • Unified Programming Model: Dataflow uses Apache Beam SDK to define both batch and stream processing pipelines. This unified model allows the same code to be used for different types of data processing.
  • Fully Managed Service: Google Cloud Dataflow manages the infrastructure for you, including scaling, monitoring, and optimizing resources, so you can focus on writing the data processing logic.
  • Autoscaling: Dataflow automatically scales the resources needed for your pipeline, adjusting in real-time to accommodate the workload, which ensures efficient use of resources and cost-effectiveness.
  • Streaming and Batch Processing: Supports both real-time streaming data and historical batch data processing, allowing you to handle a wide range of data processing needs.
  • Advanced Windowing and Triggers: Offers sophisticated windowing and triggering mechanisms that allow you to control how and when results are computed and emitted for streaming data.
  • Built-in Integration: Integrates seamlessly with other Google Cloud services such as BigQuery, Pub/Sub, Cloud Storage, and Bigtable, as well as with third-party services and on-premises systems.

What is Google Cloud Endpoints?

Google Cloud Endpoints is a managed API gateway that enables you to develop, deploy, protect, and monitor APIs on Google Cloud. It supports OpenAPI and gRPC frameworks, providing features like authentication, monitoring, and logging. Cloud Endpoints simplifies API management, ensuring secure and scalable API interactions.

How does Google Cloud VPN work?

Google Cloud VPN securely connects your on-premises network to your GCP Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network using an IPsec VPN connection. It provides a secure and encrypted connection over the public internet, enabling secure data transmission between your on-premises resources and GCP resources.

What is the Google Cloud Storage Transfer Service?

Google Cloud Storage Transfer Service allows you to automate the transfer of data from other cloud storage providers or on-premises systems to Google Cloud Storage. It supports scheduled transfers, incremental updates, and error handling, simplifying the migration of large datasets to GCP.

Describe the concept of a Managed Instance Group.

A Managed Instance Group (MIG) is a collection of identical virtual machines managed as a single entity in Google Cloud. MIGs support auto-scaling, auto-healing, and rolling updates, making it easier to deploy and manage scalable applications. They ensure that your application remains highly available and can handle varying levels of traffic.

What is the function of Cloud Dataproc?

Cloud Dataproc is a fast, easy-to-use, fully managed service for running Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop clusters. It simplifies big data processing by automating cluster management, allowing you to process large datasets quickly and efficiently. Cloud Dataproc integrates with other GCP services like Cloud Storage and BigQuery.

Explain Google Cloud Memorystore.

Google Cloud Memorystore is a fully managed in-memory data store service for Redis and Memcached. It enables you to build and manage high-performance, scalable caches and session stores for your applications, ensuring low-latency access to frequently accessed data. 

  • Fully Managed: Infrastructure, scaling, monitoring, and failover managed by Google.
  • High Performance: Low-latency access and high throughput for fast data retrieval.
  • Scalability: Supports horizontal and vertical scaling, up to 300 GB for Redis.
  • Compatibility: Compatible with Redis and Memcached.
  • Reliability: Automatic failover and replication for high availability.
  • Security: Integrated with Google Cloud’s security features, including VPC peering and IAM.
  • Easy Integration: Seamless integration with other Google Cloud services like Compute Engine and Kubernetes Engine.

What is the purpose of Cloud Run?

Cloud Run is a fully managed compute platform that enables you to run containerized applications in a serverless environment. It automatically scales your containers based on demand, providing a seamless deployment experience. Cloud Run supports any containerized application, making it a versatile choice for developers.

How do you implement load balancing in Google Cloud?

Google Cloud offers various load balancing options, including HTTP(S), SSL, TCP/UDP, and internal load balancing. These services distribute incoming traffic across multiple backend instances to ensure high availability and reliability. Load balancing in GCP supports auto-scaling, health checks, and global distribution of traffic.

Describe the purpose of Google Cloud AI Platform.

Google Cloud AI Platform provides a suite of tools and services for building, deploying, and managing machine learning models. It supports the entire ML lifecycle, from data preparation and training to prediction and monitoring. AI Platform integrates with other GCP services, enabling scalable and efficient ML workflows.

What is Cloud SQL?

Cloud SQL is a fully managed relational database service for MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQL Server. It automates database management tasks such as backups, replication, patch management, and scaling. Cloud SQL provides high availability and reliability, making it suitable for a wide range of applications.

Explain the concept of Cloud Firestore.

Cloud Firestore is a flexible, scalable, and fully managed NoSQL database offered by Google Cloud Platform, designed to store, sync, and query data for mobile, web, and server development. 

  • Real-time Synchronization: Automatically syncs data across all connected clients in real-time, ensuring that updates are instantly reflected on all devices.
  • Flexible Data Model: Uses a NoSQL document-oriented model, organizing data into collections and documents, allowing for hierarchical data structures.
  • Scalability: Designed to handle databases of any size, scaling seamlessly from small to large datasets without the need for complex configurations.
  • Offline Support: Provides offline access to data, enabling applications to function even when the device is offline, with changes synchronized once connectivity is restored.
  • Powerful Querying: Supports complex queries, including filtering, sorting, and compound queries, providing efficient data retrieval.
  • Serverless: Being fully managed and serverless, it eliminates the need for server management, automatically handling provisioning, scaling, and patching.
  • Security: Integrated with Firebase Authentication and Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM) for fine-grained access control, ensuring secure data access.
  • Multi-region Replication: Provides high availability and reliability through automatic replication of data across multiple regions.

What is the role of Google Cloud Load Balancer?

Google Cloud Load Balancer distributes incoming traffic across multiple backend instances, improving application reliability and performance. It supports global load balancing, auto-scaling, and health checks, ensuring that traffic is efficiently routed to healthy instances. Cloud Load Balancer can handle various traffic types, including HTTP(S), TCP, and SSL.

How does Cloud Build work?

Cloud Build is a continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) service that automates the building, testing, and deploying of applications. It supports multiple source repositories, including GitHub, Bitbucket, and Cloud Source Repositories. Cloud Build can execute build steps defined in configuration files, enabling reproducible and consistent builds.

What is the purpose of Cloud Scheduler?

Cloud Scheduler is a fully managed cron job service that allows you to schedule virtually any job, including batch, big data jobs, cloud infrastructure operations, and more. It can trigger jobs using HTTP, Pub/Sub, or App Engine services. Cloud Scheduler ensures reliable and time-based job execution.

Describe the Google Cloud Natural Language API.

The Google Cloud Natural Language API provides powerful tools for natural language understanding, including sentiment analysis, entity recognition, and syntax analysis. It helps developers analyze and extract insights from text using machine learning models. The API supports multiple languages and can be used for a variety of applications.

What is Cloud Vision API?

The Cloud Vision API provides powerful image analysis capabilities using machine learning. It can detect objects, faces, and text within images, and categorize images into predefined labels. The API also supports OCR (optical character recognition) to extract text from images, making it useful for a wide range of image processing applications.

Explain Google Cloud AutoML.

Google Cloud AutoML is a suite of machine learning products that enables developers, even those with limited ML expertise, to train high-quality models tailored to their specific needs. It leverages Google's state-of-the-art machine learning technology to simplify the process of building custom ML models. 

  • User-Friendly Interface: Provides an intuitive graphical interface for training, evaluating, and deploying machine learning models without extensive programming knowledge.
  • Automated Model Training: Automates the process of model training and tuning, including feature engineering, model selection, and hyperparameter tuning.
  • Custom Model Building: Enables the creation of custom models tailored to specific datasets and use cases, offering more precise results compared to generic models.
  • Integration with Google Cloud: Seamlessly integrates with other Google Cloud services such as Google Cloud Storage for data input, and AI Platform for model deployment and management.
  • Pre-trained APIs: Offers pre-trained models for common tasks such as image recognition, text analysis, and translation, which can be further customized with AutoML.
  • Scalability: Handles large datasets and scales computational resources automatically to manage varying workloads efficiently.
  • Advanced Evaluation Tools: Provides detailed evaluation metrics and visualizations to help understand model performance and make informed improvements.

How does Google Cloud Billing work?

Google Cloud Billing provides tools to manage your GCP costs and payments. It includes features for setting budgets, monitoring spending, and analyzing cost trends. Billing accounts can be linked to projects, and detailed billing reports help you understand your resource usage and optimize spending.

What is the significance of Google Cloud Trace?

Google Cloud Trace is a distributed tracing system that helps developers analyze and optimize application performance. It tracks latency across microservices and displays detailed trace data. Trace can identify performance bottlenecks and provide insights into how application requests are being processed, aiding in performance tuning.

Describe Google Cloud Debugger.

Google Cloud Debugger is a tool that allows you to inspect the state of a running application in real time without stopping or slowing it down. It captures and displays application state and variables, helping developers debug production issues quickly. Cloud Debugger supports applications running on GCP or locally.

What is Google Cloud Error Reporting?

Google Cloud Error Reporting automatically collects and analyzes error messages from applications, grouping them by root cause and providing real-time alerts. It offers a centralized view of errors across your application stack, helping you quickly identify, triage, and resolve issues to maintain application reliability.

Explain the role of Google Cloud Armor.

Google Cloud Armor is a security service provided by Google Cloud Platform that helps protect your applications and websites from cyber threats. It offers advanced security features to mitigate distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, prevent malicious web traffic, and ensure the availability and reliability of your services. 

  • DDoS Protection: Protects against large-scale DDoS attacks, leveraging Google's global infrastructure to absorb and mitigate traffic surges.
  • Web Application Firewall (WAF): Provides a configurable WAF to block common web application vulnerabilities, such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS).
  • Predefined Rules: Offers predefined security policies and rules based on industry best practices to quickly set up defenses against common threats.
  • Custom Rules: Allows you to create custom security policies tailored to your specific application needs, defining rules based on IP addresses, geographic locations, and more.
  • IP Allow/Deny Lists: Enables you to manage access to your applications by creating IP allow or deny lists, improving control over incoming traffic.
  • Geographical Controls: Lets you restrict access based on geographic location, blocking traffic from regions known for malicious activities.
  • Traffic Monitoring and Analytics: Provides real-time monitoring and detailed analytics to help you understand traffic patterns and identify potential threats.
  • Integration with Google Cloud Services: Seamlessly integrates with Google Cloud Load Balancing, offering security at the edge of Google’s network for both global and regional traffic.
  • Adaptive Protection: Uses machine learning to detect and respond to emerging threats dynamically, improving over time as it learns from traffic patterns.

What is the purpose of Google Cloud Identity?

Google Cloud Identity is a managed identity and access management service that helps organizations manage users, devices, and applications. It provides single sign-on (SSO), multi-factor authentication (MFA), and access policies to secure user accounts and devices. Cloud Identity integrates with GCP and other Google services for unified identity management.

Describe Google Cloud Datastore.

Google Cloud Datastore is a highly scalable NoSQL database for web and mobile applications. It offers automatic scaling, high availability, and ACID transactions. Datastore supports rich queries and indexes, making it suitable for a wide range of applications that require flexible and scalable data storage.

What is Google Cloud Composer?

Google Cloud Composer is a fully managed workflow orchestration service built on Apache Airflow. It allows you to create, schedule, and monitor complex workflows across Google Cloud and on-premises environments. Cloud Composer automates the orchestration of tasks, making it easier to manage data pipelines and workflows.

Explain Google Cloud Functions.

Google Cloud Functions is a serverless compute service provided by Google Cloud Platform that allows you to run code in response to events without provisioning or managing servers. It's designed to execute small, single-purpose functions that can be triggered by various events. 

  • Serverless Execution: Automatically manages the infrastructure, including scaling, load balancing, and server management, allowing you to focus solely on writing your code.
  • Event-Driven: Functions are triggered by specific events, such as HTTP requests, changes in Cloud Storage, messages in Pub/Sub, or other event sources integrated with Google Cloud services.
  • Scalability: Automatically scales the number of function instances up and down based on the volume of incoming requests and events, ensuring efficient resource use.
  • Flexible Programming Languages: Supports several programming languages, including JavaScript (Node.js), Python, Go, and Java, giving you flexibility in choosing the language you’re most comfortable with.
  • Integration with Google Cloud Services: Seamlessly integrates with other Google Cloud services like Cloud Storage, Pub/Sub, Firestore, and BigQuery, enabling the creation of complex workflows and applications.
  • Pay-as-You-Go: Pricing is based on the actual compute time used, with no charges for idle time, making it cost-effective for many use cases.
  • Security: Provides built-in security features, including identity and access management (IAM) controls, ensuring secure function execution and access management.

What is Google Cloud IoT Core?

Google Cloud IoT Core is a fully managed service that enables secure connection, management, and ingestion of data from IoT devices. It supports large-scale device deployments and integrates with other GCP services for data analysis and processing. IoT Core provides robust security features, including device authentication and data encryption.

Describe the purpose of Google Cloud Tasks.

Google Cloud Tasks is a fully managed service for executing asynchronous tasks and managing task queues. It allows you to decouple application components and ensure reliable execution of background tasks. Cloud Tasks can handle large volumes of tasks, providing features like retry policies, task scheduling, and monitoring.

What is the role of Google Cloud Transfer Appliance?

Google Cloud Transfer Appliance is a hardware device that facilitates the secure transfer of large volumes of data to Google Cloud. It is designed for data migration projects where network bandwidth is a limiting factor. The appliance can be shipped to your location, filled with data, and then sent back to Google for upload to Cloud Storage.

Explain the concept of Google Cloud Healthcare API.

The Google Cloud Healthcare API is a managed service that provides a scalable, secure, and compliant solution for managing healthcare data. It facilitates the storage, analysis, and exchange of health information across different healthcare systems and applications. 

  • Data Interoperability: Supports healthcare-specific data standards such as HL7v2, FHIR, and DICOM, enabling seamless data exchange between different healthcare systems.
  • Secure Data Storage: Provides secure storage for sensitive healthcare data, ensuring compliance with regulatory standards like HIPAA.
  • Data Integration: Facilitates integration with various Google Cloud services for advanced data processing, analytics, and machine learning.
  • Access Controls: Implements fine-grained access controls using IAM policies to ensure that only authorized users and systems can access sensitive healthcare data.
  • Data Ingestion and Export: Simplifies the ingestion and export of healthcare data, supporting batch and streaming data workflows.
  • Data Transformation: Allows for the transformation of healthcare data formats to ensure compatibility and ease of use across different systems.
  • Audit Logging: Provides comprehensive audit logging to track data access and modifications, supporting compliance and security requirements.
  • Compliance and Security: Designed to meet stringent security and compliance requirements, ensuring data protection and privacy.

What is Google Cloud Private Catalog?

Google Cloud Private Catalog allows organizations to manage and distribute internal enterprise solutions within GCP. It provides a centralized repository for curated cloud resources, ensuring compliance with internal policies and standards. Private Catalog helps streamline the deployment and management of approved solutions across the organization.